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Grinding is a type of abrasive machining process which uses a grinding wheel as cutting tool.

Wikipedia

What is Grinding?

Grinding Process

Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel or abrasive belt as the cutting tool.

It is commonly used to remove material from a workpiece, to produce a smooth finish on the surface of the workpiece, or to remove burrs from the surface.

Grinding can be performed wet or dry, and can be performed on a variety of materials, including metals, plastics, and ceramics.

Define Grinding Process

The grinding process is a material removal and surface generation process used to shape and finish components made of metals and other materials.

The precision and surface finish obtained through grinding can be up to ten times better than with either turning or milling.
Grinding employs an abrasive product, usually a rotating wheel brought into controlled contact with a work surface.

The grinding wheel is composed of abrasive grains held together in a binder. These abrasive grains act as cutting tools, removing tiny chips of material from the workpiece. As these abrasive grains wear and become dull, the amount of material removed per wheel revolution decreases.


The grinding wheel is then dressed, which is a process of removing the abrasive grains from the wheel’s surface so that it will again cut cleanly. The wheel is then reconditioned, which is a process of vitrifying the bonding material to make it harder and stronger.


The workpiece is moved past the grinding wheel in a table-fed or centerless grinding operation. The workpiece is moved past the grinding wheel either manually or by power feed. The grinding wheel is composed of abrasive grains held together in a binder. These abrasive grains act as cutting tools, removing tiny chips of material from the workpiece.

Working Principle of Grinding Machines

Most grinding machines work by using an abrasive wheel to remove material from the workpiece. The abrasive wheel is typically made of diamond or aluminum oxide and is rotated at high speeds. The abrasive particles on the wheel are what actually remove the material from the workpiece.

There are different types of grinding machines, each with its own unique set of wheels and abrasives. The most common type of grinding machine is the surface grinder, which is used to remove material from flat surfaces.

Another common type of grinding machine is the cylindrical grinder, which is used to remove material from cylindrical surfaces.

The grinding process can be very precise and produce very smooth finishes. However, it can also be very time-consuming and expensive, depending on the type of grinding machine and the materials being used.

Conditions of Use of Abrasive

Abrasive conditions of use are determined by the type of material being worked on, the type of abrasive being used, the speed of the abrasive, and the amount of pressure being applied.

The correct abrasive condition for each application must be determined experimentally, and the following general rules apply:

  • Abrasive materials harder than the workpiece material are used for grinding. -Abrasive materials softer than the workpiece material are used for polishing.
  • Abrasive materials with a Mohs hardness of 9 or 10 are used for lapping.
  • The coarser the abrasive, the higher the speed and the lower the pressure.
  • The finer the abrasive, the lower the speed and the higher the pressure.
  • Abrasive materials with a low friability are used for grinding, and those with a high friability are used for polishing.
    If the wrong abrasive condition is used, the result will be poor quality work, excess wear on the abrasive, and excessive heat generation.

Applications of Grinding Technology

Grinding technology can be applied in a number of ways to improve manufacturing processes. For example,

  • It can be used to improve the surface finish of machined parts
  • To improve dimensional accuracy
  • Increase productivity
  • It can also be used to prepare surfaces for further finishing processes, such as polishing or plating.
  • In addition, grinding technology can be used to repair damaged surfaces or to create new surfaces with desired characteristics.
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