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Guide about Grinding Wheels Types, Material & Specifications

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Grinding Wheel in Industry

A vitrico grinding wheels is the most common equipment in the metallurgy industry. Grinding Wheel cuts metals with different sizes, shapes, and efficiency.

Grinding Wheel is generally composed of two types of materials

One is the abrasive cutting compound used for grinding in Industrial applications. The other is the bond formed between the abrasives.

A grinding wheel performs several operations in the grinding and the abrasive machining. Grinding wheels are used in grinding machines.

Industrial Applications of Grinding Wheel

Grinding Wheel Industrial Applications

To use the grinding wheel, it first clamped to the grinding machine. Grinding wheel is then attached on the supporting arbors. The necessary force required to transfer the rotary motion. The force applies to the side of the wheels by sized flanges.

These grinding wheels can perform the task with very high tolerances. Very specific dimensions to grind the metal from both its exterior and interior.

The major aim of a precision grinding wheel is to use the wheels of different composition. This produces metals with different shapes.

The grinding wheels obtained of different shapes like round, square, cup and dishes. Grinding wheels are ideal for a wide range of materials and can perform hard grinding of tools, like steels and other metals.

Bonus Content : Guidelines for Selecting Grinding Wheels

Materials used in Grinding Wheels

Commonly grinding wheels made of aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, cubic boron nitride, and diamond.

A grinding wheel consists of a composite material. This coarse particles presses and then bonds together by the cementing matrix called a bond.

This results in the formation of the sold circular shape of various types of the grinding wheel. Depending on the usage of the wheel, there are various profiles and cross sections of the precision grinding wheel available.

Nowadays there are various types of material used for making of the grinding wheel. This depends on the usage of the grinding wheel.

These are generally constructed out of sold steel and aluminum steel. The particle bonds with the help of the natural composite stones like that of millstones.

How is the grinding wheel produced?

In a grinding wheel, the function of the abrasive is the same as the teeth in the saw. The only difference is that the grinding wheel has millions of grains distributed throughout.

These grains move against the workpiece. This results in removing tiny chips of unwanted material from the surface of the desired job.

There are various types of precision grinding wheels available. These depend on the end product it has to interact with and its usage. It includes:

Grinding Wheel Specification & Types
  1. Centerless Grinding Wheel
  2. Cylindrical Grinding Wheel
  3. Tool Room Grinding Wheel
  4. Surface Grinding Wheel
  5. Gear Grinding Wheel 
  6. Bench Grinder wheels and
  7. Grinding cup Wheel
  8. Roll Grinding Wheel

The hardness and the type of material it is being used which define the surface of the grinding wheel.

The grinding wheels manufacturing takes place in a very precise and controlled process. This follows the prevention of the spinning disc from an explosion. This generally occurs due to high-stress conditions produced during rotations.

With the next usage of the grinding wheel, it releases the individual grains of the abrasives. This then grows dull and increases the distance between the bonds.

This results in the exposing of the fresh grains in the wear process which begins with the next cycle. The rate at which the wearing takes place is very predictable.

It is very necessary for good performance of the grinding wheel.

Bonus Content : OD Grinding & ID Grinding Fundamentals

Characteristics of the Grinding Wheel

There are various important things taken into consideration for the grinding wheels. These include five characteristics, grain size, material, wheel grades, grain spacing, and the bond type. All these characteristics are indicated with the help of the color codes on the label of the wheel.

The abrasive grain: 

The type of material used as the abrasive grain depends on the hardness of the material that it grinds. This includes aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, ceramic, diamond, and cubic boron nitride. The grinding wheel prepared by using diamond and cubic boron nitride referred to as superabrasives. Those constructed with aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, ceramic grains referred to as a conventional type of abrasives.

The grain size: 

The type of grain size determines the average physical size of the abrasive grain. The larger the grain size the faster it will cut and create a poor finish. For ultra fine grain sizes, they result in forming finished products.

Wheel Grade

This determines the tightness of the bonds holding the abrasives. The wheel grade affects all the considerations of grinding. This includes wheel speed, coolant flow, feed rates, and grinding depth.

Grain Spacing

This depends on the spacing of the structure. It determines the ratio of the bond and the abrasive to the air space. A less dense wheel will cut and a large cut with creating an effect on the surface.

Wheel bond

This determines how the wheel holds the abrasive. It also affects considerations like finishing, coolant, least and greatest wheel speed.

Types of Grinding Wheels

Different size and type of grinding wheel
Different size and type of grinding wheel

There are various types of grinding wheels available on different specifications. There are various application such as sharpen, polishing, cutting, & smoothing of metal.

These depend on the type of abrasive used, the size created and finished product. This includes:

  • Straight wheel: They find their usage in different types of tools like chisels. It can perform grinding of various types.
  • Cylinder or wheel ring: It finds its usage for the production of flat surfaces.  The grinding happens with the end face of the wheel.
  • Tapered wheel: It finds its usage for grinding of thread and gear teeth.
  • Straight cup: It finds its usage for the cutting of tools and cutter grinders.
  • Dish cup: It finds its usage for cutter grinder and jig grinder.
  • Saucer wheel: It finds its usage for grinding of miller cutters and twist drills.
  • Diamond wheels: These finds its usage in the grinding wheels used to perfect industrial diamonds.
  • Cut off wheels: These find their usage in the construction of reinforcement bars. It also goes for anything that needs a quick removal and trimming.

Download : Grinding Wheel Catalogue

Grinding Wheel Specifications

The grinding wheel specifications- The Grinding Wheel use in end-finishing of the product. It consists abrasive grains bonded together using

  • Resins
  • Epoxy
  • Rubber
  • Metal &
  • Vitrified Glass Materials

They can be simple, flat disc shape without any recesses, flaring and cups shaped.

The type 1 wheels fall under this category and further designated to these types called “1A1”, “1A8”. Moreover, 1AI and 1A8 are known for the straight super abrasives wheels having straight face and no recess.

Which Grinding Wheel Should you Choose?

Selection of grinding wheels is challenging task for every manufacturer. That is why our abrasive experts summarized this this process in simple words to help you into making informed decision while selecting different types of grinding wheel based on material, & specifications.
The various choices for the following include:

  • Abrasive grains:  –Talking about the choices for abrasive grains, it includes
  • Aluminum Oxide,
  • Ceramic,
  • Silicon Carbide,
  • Zirconia,
  • Super Abrasive Diamond,
  • Super Abrasive CBN And Tungsten Carbide.

The concentration of abrasive grain determines the finishing of the end product. The most industrial mineral is aluminum oxide.

Also Read : What is Grinding?

Grit size

It applies on products using abrasive grains having “matrix” or “bonded” together to the surface (such as coated abrasives). It also includes MSL superabrasives, vitrified grinding wheels, dressing sticks, honing stones or the grit dressers.

The grit size is defined through the grading system standards. It specifies the upper and lower limits at the certain points in the size distribution. The various grit size systems are ANSI-bonded, FEPA-F, JIS, and Micron Graded.


Grinding wheel specification depends on these aspects such as

  • Material Removal,
  • Intermediate Cut And Finish,
  • Finishing Cutting,
  • Corner Holding,
  • Cleaning,
  • Cylindrical,
  • Dry Grinding,
  • Form Grinding Etc.

Bond type

It is formed in between the abrasive grains and the grains of the metal substrate. It can be of resin/plastic, rubber, shellac, silicate, oxychloride, vitrified etc.

  • Mounting: The choices for mounting is all about
  • Bore Mount
  • Center Mount
  • Integral Mandrel
  • Plate Mounded
  • Quick Change
  • Quill Mount Etc.

Final Words

The best type of grinding wheel can perform your task with efficiency. It also results in end products with proper finished materials. It is very important to check & test the grinding wheel before using it.

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